The body that will oversee the shake-up
In my last two posts, here and here, I’ve looked at the likely impact of the boundary review and considered how the parties might wish to see those boundaries fall. To date I haven’t really looked at the role of the Boundary Commissions at all. This is a serious omission.
In fact, it will be the Boundary Commissions that determine the constituency boundaries. The parties can make representations but the Boundary Commissions will have the final say.
On my last post on the subject of the boundary changes, a poster called SirBenjamin commented as follows:
The parties do not have as much power and influence as the post implies.
During the last two reviews (including the aborted one) I’ve advised several associations on representations to the boundary commission during the review consultation period.
1) This has only a limited impact for several reasons:The commission is (usually quite staunchly) predisposed towards their original recommendations – a compelling (and non partisan) reason for altering the proposals is required. 2. In a competitive seat there will be other parties making representations that will benefit them, so any proposals must not only be more compelling than the original proposal, but also better than any competing counter-proposals.
2) Even if beneficial proposals are adopted for one seat or in one area, it may have negative knock-on effects in others, so these must be considered when looking to make representations (e.g. you’re not only competing with Labour, but possibly also with fellow Tories next door). So, on balance, most counter-proposals will not be accepted and those that are will often be countered by an opposition counter-proposal adopted elsewhere that has a negative impact. Finding compelling arguments that are prima face non-partisan can be difficult. As well as the interesting stuff like constituency shapes, electorate sizes and ward boundaries, It also involves a lot of rather dull work researching local commnity ties, access to resources, peoples shopping habits, how rivers, railways and big main roads can or can’t be crossed, that sort of stuff. (And then quietly choosing to discard anything that isn’t to our advantage…)
While the identity of the poster is unknown, this has the ring of authority to me and I happily accept the points made. It is certainly true that the Boundary Commissions are going to be looking exclusively at non-partisan reasons for taking on board suggestions. It should be noted that local party branches, local councils and individuals will also make their own recommendations and the Boundary Commissions will look at them all.
There is no single right way of carving up boundaries. The relevant Boundary Commission will need to choose between competing possibilities. But the new strict rules mean that the Boundary Commissions will have much less freedom of manoeuvre. In fact, the task is likely to prove to be a real nightmare for the Boundary Commissions, made easier only by the fact that they have already had a trial run.
They must do so in accordance with the legislation. They are going to need to implement the proposed reduction in seat numbers to 600 and introduce new tight parameters on the number of registered voters in each seat. The Prime Minister reaffirmed his commitment to this in Prime Minister’s Questions on 1 July 2015, noting that it was a manifesto pledge.
Historically, boundaries have so far as possible emphasised a sense of place. It is likely that we will see composite constituencies, simply because they will be needed to make the sums add up. But let’s have a more detailed look at the considerations.
The Boundary Commissions are permitted to take into account the following considerations:
- special geographical considerations, including in particular the size, shape and accessibility of a constituency;
- local government boundaries;
- boundaries of existing constituencies; and
- any local ties that would be broken by changes in constituencies.
I’m going to focus now on the Boundary Commission for England in the interests of keeping this piece of manageable length. Different boundary commissions may take different approaches on some of the points that follow (and some will not be relevant for other parts of the UK). Since England is by far the most populous part of the UK, I make no apology for doing so.
Last time around, the Boundary Commission for England stated that it did not consider that it would be appropriate to start from a blank sheet of paper and that it intended to have regard generally to existing constituencies as far as possible. It would not try to make the constituencies as equal in numbers of registered voters as possible, merely to make sure that the constituencies fell within the permitted parameters. As far as possible, it would seek to create constituencies from whole wards, from wards that are adjacent to each other and that do not contain detached parts. I expect that it will take the same approach this time.
Its revised proposals last time round, which were as far as it got before the process was brought to a halt, can be viewed here.
The detailed proposals are found at the very end of each regional report. Given the allocation of seats between the component parts of the UK (and within England, between the different regions) at present look likely to be similar to what was envisaged for the abortive boundary review, you could do a lot worse at present than assume that the constituencies will look very like what was set to emerge from the review last time round. It won’t get you all the way there because the English regions do vary a bit from last time round and the numbers of registered voters in the individual constituencies have also changed quite a bit, but it won’t be a million miles away from what emerges.
If you have any interest in how the boundary reviews work in practice, I recommend dipping into these regional reports to get a flavour. Some practical examples will tell you more than any explanation can.
The Boundary Commission in practice placed considerable weight on not disturbing constituencies if it could avoid doing so. For example in Suffolk one reason it gave for preferring its revised proposal over another that had been advocated was that it left five of the existing constituencies undisturbed.
It seems likely (though it is not a legal requirement) that the Boundary Commission for England will respect regional boundaries – this is what they proposed last time around. So, for example, there may be cross-county seats between Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire, both of which are in the East Midlands region, but there will not be cross-county seats between Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire, since the former is in the Eastern region.
In accordance with the consideration of maintaining local ties, I expect that the Boundary Commissions will seek to keep sizeable towns in single constituencies wherever possible. We may see a single constituency of Luton or we may see expanded versions of Luton North and Luton South (in the abortive boundary review, Luton North was to be linked with Dunstable, to the apparent horror of the residents of the latter town). But we are unlikely to see Luton divided five ways with a mix of town and country in each one.
This would place due respect to local ties if the revised rural constituencies have even a residual coherence. To give a hypothetical example based on a county I know well, if Ipswich or Bury St Edmunds were to be partitioned between different constituencies (as has already happened to Ipswich), this would cut across local ties. On the other hand, South Suffolk is a large rural seat with two main towns, Sudbury and Hadleigh. Both towns are also in the same district council, Babergh, which covers almost the same area as the Parliamentary seat and the two towns have long been associated for political purposes. But if the seat were split up and the two towns were put in separate constituencies, this would not offend local sensibilities. Residents of both towns would look towards Bury St Edmunds, Ipswich and Colchester before they looked to each other. This would be a fairly usual state of affairs in rural constituencies.
But it does mean, if the Boundary Commissions decide to do this, that some of the remaining seats are going to be very different. Some existing rural constituencies are likely to be subject to heavy reorganisation, as the effect of the reduction in seat count is concentrated in these areas. The Boundary Commission for England seems to prefer concentrating all the upheaval in odd constituencies rather than tinkering around the edges with quite a few.
It’s also very likely that some rural constituencies will inevitably lack even a residual coherence. Cornwall, for example, will have too many voters for only five constituencies and too few for six constituencies, so it will inevitably need to share a constituency with Devon. Local feeling in such a cross-border constituency will be outraged at such sacrilege.
We have already had a taste of that from the abortive review in the last Parliament. In their revised proposals for the South West, the Assistant Commissioners drily commented:
“We have been struck by the efforts of many of those making representations to reflect the history and unique cultural identity of this region. Those issues are particularly important to those who seek to ensure that a particular county, historic area, city, or broader urban area remains whole in the sense that it is exclusively encompassed by one or more constituencies. Cornwall, Wessex, Gloucester, Plymouth, and the urban conurbation around Bournemouth are obvious examples. We are particularly grateful for the enormous amount of work that has gone into the detailed representations in relation to the unique cultural identity of Cornwall.
However, we are constrained by the statutory requirement that each constituency must have an electorate within 5% of the electoral quota.”
And the same problem is going to arise in most of the counties in England which have fewer than eight or nine seats at present.
All this is going to change the nature of some constituencies quite dramatically, both in terms of the current boundaries and in many cases in terms of the degree of internal coherence of the constituency.
What would this mean in practice? If as I expect the Boundary Commissions prioritise keeping cities and towns within a single constituency wherever possible and dividing them between as few seats as possible where that is not possible, those constituencies are inevitably going to contain high concentrations of the urban voters who are much more likely to vote Labour than their country mouse cousins. In the south of England, that maximises Labour’s chances of taking seats despite their weak levels of support there. The Conservatives do not benefit from the reverse in the north east of England and have not done so in Scotland for some time because their support in their weaker areas is so much more diffuse.
This is good news for Labour, obviously. But it does not come close to counteracting the bad news that much of its support is piled up in inner city areas. Taking 75% of the vote in a constituency is a waste. You’d rather give at least 25% of that to another more marginal constituency. Right now this phenomenon is working more against Labour than the concentration of its weak support in the south in single constituencies is working for it. It is too weak in the rural south and too strong in the inner city north.
Still, if the Boundary Commissions adopt this approach on a seat count reduction to 600, this will prove disorientating for those incumbents in highly disrupted seats (almost all of whom will be Conservatives, given that they hold almost all the rural seats in England), even if the new seats created are also safe Conservative seats. The Conservative party establishment are going to need to hand out lots of tranquillisers and reassurance if they are going to get the seat reduction through.